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Rayaru in Bijapur


Millions of people across the globe are familiar with Guru Raghavendra or Rayaru as he is more popularly called, his life history, teachings, slokas and granthas and also his final resting place-Mantralaya. The life of Guru Raghavendra is an open book and almost all his years-birth, youth, Grihastaahrama- have been well documented. However, what is not very well known is that Rayaru did spend a lot of time in Karnataka before finally settling down at Bicchale and subsequently entering brindavana in 1671 at Manchale or Mantralaya.
After Rayauru was given Sanyasa by Sudhindra Theertharu in 1624, he embarked on a pilgrimage visiting scores of places in South India, including Tirupathi, Trivandrum ()known today as Tiruvananthapuram, Kanyakumari, Kanchi, Rameshwaram, Madurai, Srirangam and other places. In my article, I have decided to concentrate only on Rayaru’s  footsteps in Karnataka as it would be a herculean task to write about all the places he visited.
Some of the places where Rayaru set foot were Adoni or Advani which in those days ws under the control of Adil Shahis of Bijapur,  Manvi in Raichur taluk, Hampi. Nava Brindavana in Bellary district, Bijapur, Kolhapur and Pandrapur bordering Bijapur district and also a part of the Adil Shahi kingdom, (Shivaji was just then establishing the Maratha empire and he was in continuous conflict with the Adil Shahis and Mughals.) Bijapur , Kittur in Belgaum , Udupi and Kukke Subramanya in Kanara district, Nanjangud   and Srirangapatna both near Mysore , , Chitradurga, Gadag and  Hubbali. 
 Rayaru visited Srirangapatna, which was then under the control of Wodeyars, and had darshana of Lord Ranganathaswamy.  He also visited Bidarahalli where he met and interacted with  Srinivasacharya, a well-known scholar. Rayaru was so impressed by Srinivasacharya’s writings that he named him Srinivasa Theertha. Rayaru then decided to have darshan of Vittala in Pandrapur and of Mahalakshmi in Kolhapur.  He came to Bijapur  which was then under the control of Adil Shahis.  During his halt at the Krishna river he wrote Bhavadipa and a  commentary on Anu bhashya, called Tattva Manjari.  He came to Malkhed in Gulbarga district and visisted the shrine of Jayatheertha (Teekachar) and his Guru Akshobya Theertha (who was one of the fpour direct disciples of Madhwacharya-the other three being Padmanabha Theertha, Narahari Theertha and Madhwa Theertha in that order).
When in Bijapur, the reigning Adil Shahi emperor, met Rayaru and presented a golden necklace studded with gems..Rayaru graciously accepted the gift and placed it in the Yagna Kunda as an offering to God. The Adil Shah took offence and expressed his displeasure over this act. “I have given you such an invaluable present and you have consigned it to flames”, he asked angrily. Rayaru  then put his hand in the fire and out came the necklace.. He then handed over the necklace to the dumbfounded Adil Shah,
 Bjapur, even in those days, was known for its extreme climate. The summers can be really torrid. When Rayaru was in Bijapur, summer had already set in and the scorching heat was sapping the energy of many. A Brahmin, overcome by heat stroke, swooned and he was asking for water. Rayaru, who saw him, recited a sloka and Rayaru’s followers and onlookers were stunned to see water spring up  from the earth and quench the Brahmin’s thirst.
Once, Rayaru was on his way to Bijapur with a large group of people after visiting Pandrapur-the home of Vittala. One of the members of the group was Dasappa. Dasappa was accompanied by his pregnant wife. The scorching sun made Dasappa’s wife miserable. There was no water available and no shelter for her to take rest. Dasappa’s wife developed labour pains. When Rayaru was apprised of the situation, he threw a Shelya (clothe worn by men to cover their chest) in the air. The clothe  shaded Dasappa’s wife from the hot sun and also gave her shelter and privacy. Rayaru then threw a twig near the tent and water came gushing out. Dasappa’s wife gave birth to a boy  who was named Ramappa. 
Rayaur also visited Vishnumangala, where Trivikrama Panditacharya, an erstwhile Advaitha scholar, had debated with Madhvacharya for fifteen days, before accpeting defeat and becoming his discpile. Rayaru then visisted the temples at Subrahmanya and Udupi. On seeing the idol  of Krihsna in Udupi, he sang Indu yenage Govinda. Udupi is also the place where Rayaru  gave discourses on Sarvamula Grantha and wrote Chandrika Prakasha, a gloss for Tattparya Chandrika written by Vyasa Theertha. He is also believed to have written in Udupi Tantradipika, a book on Sutras, and Nyayamukthavali for the benefit of students.   
During his Bijapur visit, Rayaru cured Venkanna, a mentally ill person, and also got him married.
(This article was first pub;ished in the blog Kalpavriksha Kamadhenu, which belonhs to my sister Meera Subbarao. A copy of that article has been pasted here.)
                                Credit-Blog Samyuktha Harshitha

The day Rayaru entered Brindavana


Raghavendra Swamy was teaching his disciples when he suddenly looked up and made a sign with his fingers. His disciples could not make anything of the gesture and they asked Rayaru the reason.
Rayaru smiled and told them that he had seen his friend Krishna Dwaipayana, a Madhwa saint, go to heaven. Rayaru said the departed soul asked him how long he (Raghavendra) would stay on as a mortal.
He said he had shown two fingers thrice, indicating that he would live on the earth physically for two years, two months and two days. The disciples were taken aback and looked dismayed.
Rayaru consoled them and he decided to prepare for his Brindavana Pravesha. He chose Manchale now in Andhra Pradesh as his final resting place.
Manchale then came under the jagir of Nawab Siddi Masoud, a Governor of the Bijapur Kingdom. Siddi Masood was headquartered at Adoni or Advani.
Raghavendra Swamy sent word to Diwan Venkanna (He was the same person who suddenly started reading due to the grace of Rayaru. Pleased by this, Masood had made Venkanna his Diwan) that he would becoming to his province along with all paraphernalia of the Sri Matha from Kumbokanam.
Though Venkanna wanted the Nawab to meet Raghavendra, the latter did not have any high opinion of  the seer. He decided to test the seer and sent mutton in a plate to Raghavendra Swamy. The Nawab sent word that the plate contained fruits and he wanted them to be offered to God
Raghavendra Swamy knew too well about the mischief of the Nawab. He meditated for a moment and took the holy Theertha from his Kamandala and sprinkled them on the plate which was covered with a clothe.
When the plate was uncovered, the Nawab was shocked to see that the mutton pieces had transformed into flowers. He immediately fell at the feet of Raghavendra and sought his forgiveness.
“Please let me know what I can do to atone for my sin”, he begged Raghavendra. The Guru only smiled. When Masood insisted, Raghavendra sought for land at Manchale, a small village across the Tungabhadra.
Masood was surprised and wanted to know why Raghavendra was insisting on a barren place of land. Moreover, he had already gifted the land to a fakir. When Venkanna said Rayaru would not accept anything but Manchale
Masood reluctantly agreed.
He gave the fakir another piece of land and gifted Manchale to Raghavendra Swamy.
Raghavendra Swamy then stayed at the house of  Appanacharya, a rich Zamindar, at Bichale near Raichur. Both Rayaru and Appanacharya became close friends and spent hours discussing Vedanta and other related subjects. Appanacharya lovingly cooked food for Rayaru and also for Naivaidya of Moola Rama and other deities of the Sri Matha which had been bought in the Devara Pettige (box which held the Samsthana idols of the Matha) from Kumbakonam.
 Rayaru knew that Appanacharya would not let him enter Brindavana. He, therefore, entrusted the task to Diwan Venkanna. Rayaru also pointed to a stone slab near Madavara village and said he wanted the Brindavana to be constructed from it.
Rayaru said Rama during his wanderings, had sat on this stone and that he wanted the Brindavana to be covered with it. Venkanna immediately set about preparing the Brindavana. Meanwhile, Rayaru also showed Venkanna and Masood the spot where he wanted the Brindavana to be built. He also specified the size of the Brindavana and how the pit should be dug.
Some time later, Venkanna showed the Brindavana to Rayaru. Looking at the exquisite Brindavana, Rayaru said this would be occupied decades later by one of his successors. “He is more suited than me to occupy this place,” Rayaru said and asked Venkanna to construct a much simpler Brindavan. This suitable man was none other than Vadeendra Theertha, the great grandson of Rayaru.
All this while Rayaru was still staying at the house of  Appanacharya. He decided to dismantle the ant hill in the house of Appanacharya where a cobra (sarpa) had made its home. Rayaru would give it milk every day and the cobra would come and drink it.
Rayaru ensured that the cobra moved away from the ant hill. This was because he realised that people would be scared of the snake after he entered Brindavana. He also wanted to protect the Sarpa from harm.   
The Brindavana was constructed and the date that Rayaru had mentioned to Krishna Dwaipayana was drawing near. Rayaru realised that he would not be able to entre Brindavana as long as Appancharya was near. He then sent out
Appanacharya on Sanchara and decided to enter Brindavana.
Rayaru decided to enter Brindavana on August 11, 1671. This day was Friday. He made all the arrangements himself. By then the Brindavana was ready.
His friends and relatives, devotes and other people began pouring into Manchale. By this time, Rayaru had already made Yogendra Theertha, his successor. Yogendra Theertha was the grandson of  his brother Gururaja.
Both Raghavendra Swamy and Yogendra Theertha stayed for some time and prayed at the Venkatarama Temple in Manchale to observe Chaturmasa. Rayaru then prayed to Manchalamma and told her of his plan to enter Brindavana. 
Rayaru sang “ Namosthu Varade Krishne Kumari Bramacharini Baalrka Sadrushaakaaye Purnachandra Nibhaanane Yam Kaamaye Tam Tamugram Krunomi Tam Bramanaama Tamrushini Tam Sumedhaam” and Manchalamma was pleased. 
A day before Rayaru entered Brindavana, that is on Thursday, (Shraavana Bahula Pratipada) Rayaru performed the Pooja of  Sri Moola Ramadevarau and other deities. It was a normal day for him, while all others had a heavy heart. Raghavendra Swamy held discussions on Acharya Tatva.
After having his daily frugal meal, Rayaru gave a  thought to the next day’s programme. He called the Matha officials and also his successor and gave them instructions.
The next day dawned and Rayaru spent his time in ritualistic bathing in the Tungabhadra as was his normal routine.  He then prayed to his beloved Moola Rama one last time and performed other pooje.
Then began his final discourse on the Brahma Sutra of Madwacharya and its interpretation by Jayatheertha. However, none of the devotees and disciples had the heart to understand the lecture. They were heartbroken as it was the last lecture of Raghavendra.
Soon after his Patha, Raghavendra then took the hand of  Yogendra Theertha and walked towards the Brindavana. The Brindavana was constructed on a platform with steps. Rayaru was taken in a proceesion on the temple elephant Mahendra.
Rayaru had his Danda and Kamandala with him.
He appeared calm and blessed the devotees along the way.
When the procession came near Garbalaya where the Brindavana was constructed,  Rayaru alighted from the elephant and took out his Paduke and handed them over to Yogendra Theertha. Meanwhile, Yogendra Theertha had constructed a Pranadevaru temple opposite the Brindavana as per Rayaru’s wishes.
Even on the last day, Rayaru performed three miracles. A dumb youth got back his power of speech and a lame person got back his limbs. His last miracle was to cure a youth of leprosy.
Rayaru’s son, Lakshnimarayana, Rayaru’s nephew Narayanachar, Diwan Venkanna and others watched with a heavy heart as Rayaru was moments away from entering the Brindavana. Vadeendra Theertha then was just two years old when Rayaru entered the Brindavana. (He became the head of the Mantralaya matha five swamijis after Raghavendra. He wrote Gurugunasthavana, a composition of  of 36 verses).
Rayaru then raised his hands in blessing to the assembled crowd and made his last speech. He asked people to be righteous and follow the path of Dharma. He entered the Brindavana with his Kamandala and Japa mala. He held the hand of Yogendra Theertha and walked into the Brindavan enclosure. He entrusted the Matha to Yogendra Theertha and once again commended the people to follow the path of  righteousness.
Rayaru then began meditating and he had asked Venkanna and others to close the Brindavana once the Japa Mala fell from his hand. The moment came and the Brindavana was closed forever.
An interesting fact is that Raghavendra Vijaya does not contain any details of  the Brindavana Pravesha. Much of the details can be culled from other books, articles and the matha. Another fact is that Appanacharya was not there when Raghavendra Swamy entered Brindavana
When Appancharya swam across the swirling waters of the Tungabhadra when he heard the news of Rayaru entering Brindavana,  it was too late. Rayaru had already entered the Brindavana and Appanacharya sorrowfully sang Purnaboda.
A sobbing Appanacharya could not finish the song and Raghavendra Swamy completed the Shloka from within the Brindavana by singing“sakshi haya stotra hi.”
                  Credit-Blog Samyuktha Harshitha

Rayaru gave us twins


This is the first article in the blog dealing with personal miracles of Raghavendra Swamy.
Let us begin with the Raghavendra Swamy temple at 5th Block, Jayanagar.
A couple from Jayanagar, Bangalore, have submitted this incident. So here goes…..
We are Madhwa Brahmins and we have twins. Both are girls and they are studying in a well-known convent in Bangalore.
The parents of the twins do not want their identity known and we have decided to keep it that way. What matters here is the blessing of Rayaru and his sympathy to wards the couple and not the name of the couple.
This is how the story unfolded.
The couple said…….
Our first child, a girl, was born sometime in September 2004. The child was born premature and it was underweight. Both the mother and daughter were admitted to a well-known hospital in Bangalore.
While the mother was discharged after a few days, the child was kept in the ICC peadiatric ward for almost a month. The child was unable to eat on its own and it had to be fed. Since its organs were not very well developed, it could not take anything except mother’s milk..
The father was allowed to see the child only for a few minutes before he was asked to leave the ICU. The doctors there told him that they had been doing their best but the child would survive only if  it desired to live.
The medicines and tablets to the child continued for almost a month. The doctors wanted to increase the intake and one day gave the child a little more milk. The child was unable to digest this and its liver got clogged. Soon, it developed complications and it died on early on Vijayadashami.
The child was laid to rest in an unmarked place at the Hindu crematorium in Lakshmipura near Ulsoor.
Deeply disappointed over the turn of events, the couple faced several other problems. They also lost faith in God and stopped going out.
The loss was all the more poignant for the father as he had interacted every evening with the child. He rushed down from his office to his house where his wife would hand over a small container with her milk to him. The father then would go to the hospital as he knew that their child, which was lonely in the ICU, would be waiting for a sip of her mother’s milk
Recovery from the tragedy was slow and painful. Every time the couple looked at a small child, particularly a girl, they were reminded of their lost one. Though the mother appears to have come to terms with the tragedy, the father still has not forgotten the first child. He has so far never revealed to his friends that the first born has passed away. On that particular day, Vijayadashamai, he does not go out of the house and prefers to spend time alone. That is the day he has set aside for his first born. 
Meanwhile, days passed and one day, the in-laws of the girl went to the Rayaru Matha in Jayanagar 5th Block.
The pooje of the Raghavendra Swamy Brindavana had just concluded and the priests were giving Mantrakshate and Theertha. When the in-laws approached the main priest or Archaka, he recognised them and asked the why they had not come to the matha for such a long time.
The couple’s mother-in-law told the priest how she had lost her granddaughter. The priest got up, took a coconut, put Mantrakshate and flowers on it and handed it to the mother-in-law, and asked her to bring the couple.
The couple, who had never visited any temple, came reluctantly to the Rayara Matha. The priest called them in and blessed them saying that they had lost one, but they would get two. An year after he predicted this, the couple are happy parents of  twins.
The anugraha of Rayaru continues on the twins to this day too. The twins have won several prizes in competitions and they regularly take part in contests arranged by the Raghavendra Swmay Mathas in Bangalore. They have won prizes in contests organised by the NR Colony, Jayanagar 4th Block and 5th Block Mathas. 
The last prize they won was at the hands of  the Uttaradhi Matha seer, Satyatma Theertha, at the Narasimha Temple in Basavanagudi, Bangalore.
Om Namo Raghavendraiah.
                               Credit-Blog Samyuktha Harshitha               

Rayaru gave Moksha to Kanaka Dasa


Raghavendra was the final avatar of Prahalada, Balika Raja and Vyasa Raja.
Vyasa Raja was the Raja Guru of six emperors of the Vijayanagar dynasty. As Vyasa Raja, he was instrumental in developing the Haridasa Sahitya –the Dasa Koota and the Vyasa Koota in Karnataka.
Vyasa Raja was also responsible for encouraging Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa in their endeavours. Vyasa Raja left the mortal world in 1526 and Purandara lived on till 1564. Kanaka too lived longer-till 1609.
Vyasa Raja was reborn as Raghavendra Theerta in 1595. By the time of  his birth, Hampi or Vijayanagar had been totally destroyed and the glory of the Vijayanagar Empire had faded.
When Vyasa Raja was alive, Hampi was one of the greats cities of its time and its fame had spread far and wide. Foreign travelers and historians made a beeline to Hampi and went into raptures describing the beauty of the city.
The glory of Hampi  was not only due to the deeds of the Vijayanagar Emperors but also due to the unmatched growth in art, literature, religion and philosophy.
One of the shining lights of the Vijayanagar period Was Vyasa Raja or Vyasa Theertha. Almost all the foreign travelers such as Nuniz, Domingo Peas and even Razak have spoken glowingly of this seer and his achievements.
Vyasa Raja had gathered a galaxy of shishyas each outdoing the other. Some of the Shiashyas were Vijendra Theertha, Sudhindra Theertha, Vadiraja Theertha, Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Vaikunta Dasa and many others.
If Purandara was the master of Carnatic music, Vadiraja Theertha was God personified. Vijendra Theertha was an embodiment of  the 64 arts.
Many of the disciples, including the above mentioned greats met Vyasa Theertha, also called Vyasa Raja or Vyasa Raya at Hampi.
On one particular occasion, Vysaa Raja asked all his disciples to get together. The meeting took place at the Vijayanagar Vishwa Vidyalaya, of which Vyasa Raja was the Chancellor.
Even as the gathering watched, Vyasa Raja called all the three-Vadiraja Theertha, Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa- and discussed some aspects of the shastras and Vedas with them. The gathering was spell bound as they realized that they had in their midst four persons who had seen Sri Hari with their own eyes.  
It was then Vyasa Raja revealed a side he had never before shown anybody. Turning to Vadiraja Theertha, he said you will continue to live for many more years. (Vadiraja Theetha outlived Vyasa Raja and entered Brindavana only in 1600. By the way, Vyasa Raja entered Brindavana in 1536).
He then spoke lovingly to Purandara his favourite disciple. He said, Purandara you shall live longer than me but you have sic more births to go before attaining Moksha.
Vyasa Raja then astonished the gathering by telling Kanaka Dasa that he would meet him in the next birth. Vyasa Raja had given the Ankita Nama Kanaka to Thimappa Nayaka.
This was the first indication that Vyasa Raja gave to his devotees about his coming avatar as Raghavendra Swamy.
Vyasa Raja passed away in 1536 and took rebirth as Raghavendra Swamy in 1571.
By then, Purandara had died (in 1564 in Hampi) and Vadiraja Theertha was staying at Sode near Sirsi.  Kanaka Dasa was wandering around Karnataka and other places singing the glory of Hari.
It was sometime in the 1650s that Raghavendra Swamy once came to Bellary and stayed at a Hanuman Temple on the banks of the Tungabhadra. Rayaru went to the river and had a bath. He then was about to enter the temple for performing the Moola Rama pooje when he noticed a person belonging to a lower caste standing nearby.
Rayaru looked at the person and spoke as if he had known him all his life. “What, Kanaka. How are you. What are you doing here”, asked Rayaru.
The person whom Rayaru had called Kanaka replied. “I am as you see me. We meet again. I do not want to live anymore. I should be allowed to leave.”
Rayaru smiled at the answer and retorted, “If so what will you offer to my lord”.
The person said he would bring something and vanished from the place. He came back and gave a packet to Rayaru. The packet had mustard seeds.
Rayaru did not say anything but handed over the packet to the cook and asked him to use it for the day’s cooking. This astonished everybody present there as it was Chaturmasa (October to January) and mustard seeds were Nishida or banned.
All the while, the person sat outside the temple watching the proceedings. When Rayaru finished the Moola Rama Pooje, he turned towards the person who then burst into a melodious song praising Moola Rama.
The moment the song ended, the person gave up his life and fell down dead. Even as the other devotees stood around the body anxiously, Rayaru did not show any emotion. Instead, he smiled and said,  “You have attained salvation or Moksha. Peace be with you.”
The perplexed devotees did not understand anything. It was then some persons in the matha where Rayaru was staying confirmed that Rayaru was Vyasa Theertha in his previous birth and he had just met Kanaka Dasa who had been born as a low caste person and helped him attain Moksha.
One of the eye witnesses to this entire episode was Krishna Swamy, a businessman. It was he who has recorded the incident and passed in onto others.
Vyasa Raja had ruled over the Dharmic kingdom of Vijayanagar. However, Vijayanagar was shattered after the battle of Talikota in 1565. When Raghavendra Swamy visited Hampi, Nava Brindavana and Hospet, the Vijayanagar empire had practically vanished from the scene and all he saw was utter ruin and desolation.
Yet, not for a moment or even a day did Raghavendra Swamy allude to his glories during his past incarnation as Vyasa Raja. The only physical evidence he gave to his disciples was when he sat and meditated in front of the Brindavana of Vyasa Raja in Nava Brindavana.
The devotees could not contain their curiosity and some among them wanted to know why the venerable Vyasa was visible only to their Guru. It was then Raghavendra revealed that he was born as Vyasa Raja in his previous incarnation and he was only speaking to him.    
                        Credit to Blog Samyuktha Harshitha
  

Raghavendra’s Geetha


It was in the early part of the 14th century that Madhwacharya wrote  two beautiful commentaries in Sanskrit on the Bhagavath Gita. They are Gita Bhashya and Gita Tatparya.
Several decades later, Teekacharya or Jayatheertha, the fifth pontiff of the Dwaitha Matha after Padmanabha Theertha, wrote commentaries on these two works. Unfortunately, these commentaries-Prameya Deepika and Nyaya Deepika- are more for the scholars than for the common man. Though they are the first interpretations of  Madhwa’s works, they are a hard nut to crack and extremely difficult to understand.   
However, we should be thankful to Jayatheertha for having given us these two interpretations and many scholars and Dwaitha saints have written extensively keeping in mind the original (Madhwa) and also the commentaries of Jayatheertha.
Raghavendra Swamy was able to “digest” both the Bhashya and Tatparya of Madhwa and the Prameya and Nyaya Deepika of Teekacharya and give us a fundamental understanding of the Geetha.
The language used by Raghavendra Swamy in Geetha Vivrutti or Geetharatha is simple and he starts off the Geetha with the feeble voice of Dhritharashtra asking Sanjaya how his sons have fared in the battle. This question is irrelevant as even the blind king knows that when Krishna is on the side of the Pandavas, his sons cannot escape death. Why then does he ask the question?   
The entire work is in simple Sanskrit (Of course when compared to Madhwacharya and Teekacharya) and even a layman is able to easily understand what Rayaru means.
Rayaru himself answers this query for us. Rayaru here uses the words “Kimi Kurvata Sanjaya”-What happened in the battlefield. He emphasis his attachment to his sons by stressing on the word “Mamaka.” Rayaru has held up as a mirror the selfish nature of the Blind King, He means that the King is not only physically blind but also mentally blind-he does not see the path of destruction that he himself has set his sons on.  

In another verse, we see Duryodhana approaching Dronacharya  just before the beginning of the war and complaining to him, “Pashyaitam panduputranam …”. Here, Duryodhana is envious of the strength of  the Pandava Army even while his forces are almost double in number. Duryodhana’s army was eleven Akshouhini strong as compared to seven of  Pandavas. (An Akshauhini is an ancient Indian battle formation consisting of 21,870 chariots; 21,870 elephants; 65,610 cavalry and 109,350 infantry. The ratio worked out here is 1 chariot : 1 elephant : 3 cavalry : 5 infantry soldiers. In each of these large number groups -65,610, etc.-, the digits add up to 18.)

Another reason for Duryodhana to be wary of the  Pandavas is that their army is led by Dhrishtadyumna, the brother of Draupadi whom they had insulted. Drona had also insulted and humiliated Drupada, the father of  Dhrishtadyumna.
No wonder Duryodhana appeared pensive.
While conversing with Drona, the Kaurava Prince uses the word “aparyaptam” while describing his army. Many critics and people who have commented on the Geetha have interpreted ‘aparyaptam’ to mean “unlimited.” Their meaning is that Duryodhana means  “Our army, protected by Bhishma is unlimited, whereas their army, protected by Bhima, is very limited.” However, this meaning does not stand the test of  reasoning. How can Duryodhana make such a comment when he is agitated earlier to express apprehensions.
Rayaru hits the nail on the head when he interprets “aparyaptam” as “inadequate or incapable”.
This interpretation juxtaposes completely with earlier remarks of Duryodhana.
When Bhishma blows his conch for instilling courage in Duryodhana, prompt is the reply from Krishna on behalf of the Pandavas. “Panchajanyam Hrushikeshah ………”, says Krishna, the non-combatant of the battle.
Many have failed to explain Krishna’s retort. Krishna had promised not to carry arms and he was in Kurukshetra as a  charioteer. Moreover, he was not regarded as a great warrior by the Kauravas.
Again, we have Rayaru explaining this paradox in easy terms. Rayaru says what Krishna meant was that everybody are mere actors and I am the only one really fighting. It is I who control them and make them fight.
There are a lot of places where Rayaru makes it easier for our understanding of the nuances of the Geetha. But for him, out understanding would have been clouded.